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Motherboard is the main circuit board of a microcomputer. Typically, the motherboard contains the devices described as follows:

 CPU      = Central Processor Unit.

 BIOS    = Basic Input Output System.

 CMOS  = Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor.

 RAM    = Random Access Memory.

 ROM    = Read Only Memory.

 Cache    = Cache memory is a high-speed static RAM mechanism.

 Chipset = A number processor units designed to perform more difference functions under control of Central processor unit.  All the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices, such as the display screen, keyboard, disk drive, communication ports, and mouse port. Collectively, all these chips that reside on the motherboard are known as the motherboard's chipset.

Mass storage interfaces is also called hard disk controller.  New generation of mother board usually had build in some of mass storage interfaces. There are several different type of interfaces mention below: 

 IDE  = Integrated Drive Electronics is hard disk interface with 40 pin input output data transfer.  IDE is also used in most CDROM interface.

 SCSISmall Computer System Interface. SCSI is a parallel interface architecture used in most Server computer and UNIX, LINUX PC systems.  There are four difference SCSI hard disk: SCSI 1 and SCSI 2 have 50 pins I/O data.  SCSI 3 has 68 pins I/O data.  SCSI 4 has 80 pins I/O data.

 Serial port = Communication port with speed up to 19,200 baud.

  Parallel port = Communication port with speed up to   4 MB/S

 USB port   = Universal Serial port with speed up to 12 MB/S (mega bytes)

 Expansion slot = Connector that connect between motherboard and interface.  There are several difference expansion slots:

 ISA   = Industry Standard Architecture is a 16-bit bus.

 EISA = Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a 32-bit bus.

 PCI   = Peripheral Component Interconnect is a 64-bit bus.  Usually implemented as 32 bit bus.